“Design Thinking” is simply a method for solving problems using a structured creative process.
The earliest forms of design thinking were developed more than 30 years ago to assist architects with the designing of buildings and the planning of urban spaces. In the 1990s, the design firm IDEO made the process hip when they began to market a more formal methodology. Their approach was created to develop innovative new products and services for their blue chip clients.
Today, design thinking has experienced a resurgence as companies all over the world desperately search for ways to reinvent themselves in the midst of a fast-moving technological revolution.
But while design thinking is typically thought of as a tool for designers to create new products, recruiting teams can use a modified version of it to improve their processes and enhance services.
Below are the basic steps of how you can use design thinking in your world. While this article won’t make you an expert in running a workshop, it should stimulate some ideas of how you can approach some of your biggest recruiting problems using a more human-centered approach.
For the purposes of this post, I’m going to focus on nine high-level steps that you could take to tackle a specific problem that you’re facing today.
Step 1: Define the Problem
While you’ll want to be specific when defining the problem, be sure not to be so specific that you’re defining the solution at the same time.
For example, let’s say you’ve gotten some feedback that your interviewing experience is broken — particularly for your executive hires.
Here are some “bad, better, best” examples of how you might frame up a problem statement that will serve as your north star through the rest of your design thinking process:
“Improve the executive candidate experience.” (Bad - Too Vague)
“Improve the candidate experience during the executive interview process by using video interviewing solutions so the candidate doesn’t have to travel.” (Bad - Too Specific)
“Improve the candidate experience during the executive interview process” (Better - But Not Measurable)
“Improve the candidate experience for executive level interviews as measured by a 10% lift in NPS.” (Best!)
One of the biggest mistakes that companies make when trying to solve a problem is assuming that they already know the solution before they start the design process. You want to leave the problem open-ended to allow yourself some space to expand your thinking but make sure you set a measurable goal so you know what success looks like.
Step 2: Conduct Research
Once you’ve defined the problem, it’s time to talk to your “end users” or “customers”. In this case, your customer should be an executive who recently experienced your interview process.
Specifically, you’ll want to find out what they were saying, thinking, feeling and doing as they progressed through their interviews.
Three of the most popular methods to collect this type of feedback are: immersion, interviewing and observing. Interviewing is by far the most common, but you shouldn’t ignore the other options.
When interviewing an executive, focus on open-ended questions that follow the WWWWWH format. Here are a few sample questions you might ask:
Who … was your main point of contact during your interview process? Did that change?
What … did you expect to happen that didn’t happen?
When … is it most convenient for you to interview? How can we better accommodate your schedule?
Where … did you fly into? Where did you come from? Where did you stay? (How was your experience?)
Why … Why is a great follow-up question to ask after your interviewee speaks. Use it every chance you get!
How … did you feel when you left the interview? How does this compare to other interviews you’ve had?
In these examples, we’re not trying to lead the executive to any particular solution, but instead asking them some broad questions about their interviewing experience and interviewing in general. By letting them lead the conversation, you’ll get the insights that you need to focus your problem solving.
Step 3: Uncover Insights
Once you have collected a good number of user stories and you’re starting to see patterns in their responses, it’s time to synthesize the data into a “Point of View Statement (POV).”
The POV statement is a sentence that articulates – from the user’s point-of-view – the emotional pain point that will guide your solution design. Here are a couple examples:
“As an executive, fitting multiple rounds of interviews into my schedule is stressful because I’m always busy and often traveling.”
“As an executive, it’s risky for me to interview at corporate headquarter locations because I’m afraid that someone will see me and it will get back to my leadership team.”
These statements are in the voice of the candidate and reveal their emotional discomfort.
Step 4: Create a “POV Question”
Once you’ve decided on a POV statement, create a question that will serve as the starting point for your ideation sessions. These are sometimes called POV Questions and they help to focus your team on the topic of your brainstorm.
A recommended strategy is to use the words “How might we …” at the beginning of the question, like this:
“How might we … alleviate calendar and travel conflicts for executive interviewers?”
“How might we … protect the confidentiality of executive candidates during the interview process?”
Notice that we didn’t include any solutions, and instead just asked an insightful question. These questions actually target two different problems, so eventually you’ll want to focus on the one question that will solve the highest priority problem.
Step 5: Ideation
Now that you have a user-generated insight and a POV question to focus your thinking, it’s time to break out the Post-It Notes and generate ideas. Lots of them!
Notice that we’re not starting the ideation session until step 5 of 9. One of the biggest mistakes that people do is start with ideation before they know what the actual problem is.
For an ideation session to be effective, you’ll want to invite different types of people to ensure diversity of thought. Consider Recruiters, Coordinators, Hiring Managers, Executives and even some recent candidates. The more input here, the better.
Ideation sessions can be fun, but if you don’t manage them properly, they can become counterproductive.
A good size for a group is around five or six, so if you have 15 people, break them into three groups of five.
Step 6: Prototype
Once you’ve developed lots of ideas and you’ve ruthlessly eliminated the majority of them, you’ll want to pick your best idea and build a simple prototype that you can quickly launch and test.
A prototype could be a new policy, a new process, a PDF help document, a video or a technology tool. Whatever it is, make it cheap and fast and go to the next step – testing!
In the case of our executive recruitment example, maybe your prototype is a quick test to incorporate a video interview solution that might solve BOTH your travel issues and your confidentiality challenges!
Step 7: Test
If you really want to know if your solution works, you’ll want to test it with your target audience and gather feedback again.
This process of prototyping and testing might go on for a few cycles until you get it right.
Sticking with the video interviewing theme, think about how you could use existing technology you already own – like WebEx or Skype – to experiment immediately. Do this instead of going out and buying a video interview solution that might take time, cost money, etc.
Maybe you end up buying a video interview solution later, but you’ll want to prove the concept first with user feedback.
Step 8: Refine
The key to the prototype and test plan is to gather feedback and refine the solution.
For example, if you find that a certain video solution isn’t working properly, try a different one instead of scrapping the entire idea. For executives, maybe a WebEx or Skype isn’t polished enough. Maybe you need a more professional solution.
The key is to prototype, test, measure, refine. Repeat.
Step 9: Launch
While “launching” might sound like a one-time event, you should never stop collecting feedback, testing and refining. Realistically, it can’t go on forever, so you might want to set up regular intervals where you capture feedback and review the data. Like quarterly or annually, for example.
To bring closure to our fictional executive interviewing problem, below is how this design thinking session could result in a solution:
Problem: “How might we alleviate calendar and confidentiality issues for executive interviewers?”
Solution: Launch a new process for executive interviews that incorporates the use of a network of physical locations that have professional video capabilities – like a telepresence camera – for example. The executive can travel to a nearby location (reducing flight expense and time) and preserve their anonymity by not having to walk around a corporate campus which could be a career risk. And the video is so good that it feels like they’re almost in the room anyway. Finally, a new NPS-style survey will be sent to all candidates to measure improvements over time.
Learning More & Doing it Right
Design thinking is a process that takes time and effort to do correctly. While most recruiting teams are familiar with brainstorming sessions, they often miss the user-centric, research-based work that makes the design thinking process so effective.
While I highly recommend that you acquire (or hire) the skills to incorporate this methodology into your problem-solving toolkit, I can’t stress enough that you should invest the time to do it correctly. It takes effort, but the results are amazing.
This article was adapted from a piece I wrote for Cielo.